reproductive health

In general, infertility is defined as the inability to become pregnant (conceive) after one year (or more) of unprotected sex with no protection. For this reason, some doctors analyze and treat women who are 35 years or older after 6 months of unprotected sex, based on the fact that female fertility is known to drop steadily with age. Women who are experiencing infertility might consider scheduling an appointment with a reproductive endocrinologist, who is a doctor who specializes in the treatment of fertility problems. Patients with recurrent pregnancy loss, which is defined as having had two or more spontaneous miscarriages, may benefit from the services of reproductive endocrinologists.

How common is infertility?

Women between the ages of 15 and 44 are estimated to have difficulty conceiving in one out of every ten attempts. Women who experience pregnancy complications are at risk of miscarrying their children. Before the 20th week of pregnancy, a woman is considered to be pregnant (miscarriage). After the 20th week of pregnancy, the baby is born (stillbirth).

What is infertility?

Couples who attempt to become pregnant but are unsuccessful within one year are deemed infertile by medical professionals. Women over the age of 35 have a shorter waiting period for a diagnosis of infertility, with only six months required for a diagnosis when they are over 35. If you are a woman over the age of 40, you should get checked right away! A miscarriage or being unable to carry a baby to term are not considered to be cases of infertility.

What causes infertility?

It is estimated that approximately 12 percent of women over the age of 15 in the United States are having difficulty getting pregnant. Infertility can be caused by a variety of factors, the most common of which is a problem with the female reproductive system.

The inability to conceive is a difficult condition to deal with, and it is frequently a source of anxiety for couples. When faced with this condition, some people seek support from others through the use of online forums and chat rooms, where they can share their stories and receive support from other members.

A man’s inability to conceive is just one of the many issues that can arise in his life, but in recent years, more men have come forward to admit that they are dealing with the same problem. When it comes to the symptoms of low sperm count or poor quality sperm, men experience many of the same symptoms as women, such as mood swings and fatigue.

Symptoms of infertility

The most common symptom of infertility is the inability to become pregnant. It is possible that there are no other obvious symptoms. Women who are experiencing infertility may experience irregular or absent menstrual periods from time to time. In some cases, men who are experiencing infertility may exhibit signs of hormonal imbalance, such as changes in hair growth or changes in their sexual function.

Whether they use fertility treatment or not, the vast majority of couples will eventually become pregnant.

When should you visit the doctor? In most cases, you will not need to see your doctor about infertility until you have been attempting to conceive on a consistent basis for at least one year. Women should consult with a healthcare provider sooner, however, if they have any of the following symptoms:

  • Are over the age of 35 and have been trying to conceive for at least six months Have irregular or absent periods Are over the age of 40.
  • Have extremely painful menstrual periods.
  • Have you ever experienced infertility issues?
  • Are suffering from endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease, or are suffering from multiple miscarriages.
  • Have had cancer treatment completed or are in the process of undergoing cancer treatment

Men should seek medical attention if they have any of the following symptoms:

  • Having a low sperm count or having other sperm-related issues
  • Having a history of testicular, prostate, or sexual problems is not recommended.
  • Cancer treatment has been completed.
  • Small testicles or swelling in the scrotum are signs of a problem.
  • There may be others in your family who are experiencing infertility issues.

What are the types of infertility?

male factor infertility

1. Tubal (also known as tubal etymology)

Infertility in the tubum develops as a result of either a biological or a functional pathology. Tubal infertility is caused by a variety of biological factors, including:

Inflammatory diseases, postpartum, postabortion, postoperative complications, endometriosis of the fallopian tubes, and other conditions are discussed.

The following are the causes of functional tubal infertility:

Pathology of the neuroendocrine system involved in the regulation of reproductive function; steroidogenesis; and the role of prostaglandins.

2. Peritoneal

Peritoneal infertility is caused by the same factors that are responsible for tubal infertility. Inflammatory diseases, surgical interventions on the genitals and in the abdominal cavity have all resulted in adhesions, which are the cause of this condition.

Endometriosis is a peritoneal disease that affects the uterus. Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium becomes dislocated from the uterine cavity. It occurs in 5-10% of women out of every 100. Mechanical, immunological, and hormonal factors can all play a role in the development of endometriosis. The results of the patient’s gynecological and ultrasound examinations are required by the doctor in order to make a diagnosis. Because the pathogenesis of this disease is still not completely understood, there is currently no single treatment approach that can be used to treat it.

3. Endocrine

Endocrine infertility encompasses all types of amenorrhea, including primary and secondary amenorrhea, follicular and luteal insufficiency, ovarian and adrenal hyperandrogenemia, hyperprolactinemia, and other hormonal imbalances.

Endocrine infertility is a condition that affects women and is caused by dysfunction of the ovaries, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland. This occurs because the female organism does not produce sufficient amounts of hormones, resulting in a malfunction in egg maturation. The majority of the time, this type of infertility is temporary and disappears once the woman’s hormones have returned to normal.

4. Immunological

One in every five couples suffers from immunological infertility, which is a serious problem. According to the researchers, the reason for this is an autoimmune response of the female organism to sperm. The female body has the ability to produce a large amount of antibodies, which can kill sperm before it has a chance to fertilize the egg, resulting in pregnancy. The most effective treatments are intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Another type of infertility is caused by malformations and disorders of the reproductive system, such as, for example,:

Acquired cervical canal fusion; hymen, vaginal, or cervical canal atresia; vaginal aplasia; double reproductive organs (uterus and vagina); traumatic damage to the genitals; retroflexed uterus and uterine; traumatic damage to the genitals.

5. Psychogenic

Psychogenic infertility is caused by psychological and emotional disorders, as well as stress. It develops as a result of various factors, including stress. As a result of psychological infertility, it is estimated that at least 30 percent of couples are unable to conceive a child in their lifetime. The fear of taking on parental responsibilities or of losing one’s attractiveness are the top two reasons for psychological infertility.

6. Uterine

Multiple degenerative changes in the endometrium, inflammatory processes, and traumatic injuries can all contribute to the development of uterine infertility.

Uterine fibroids are found in every third patient suffering from primary infertility, and they eventually become the primary cause of infertility. It is not difficult to make a diagnosis for this disease. A gynecological examination and ultrasound results are required by a doctor in order to detect a large or medium fibroid. In some cases, hysteroscopy is required in order to determine the condition of the endometrium. In most cases, infertility caused by uterine fibroids is temporary, and a woman may be able to conceive after having a node removed.

7. Extragenital

Extragenital infertility is a form of infertility that develops as a result of somatic diseases. These diseases can either directly affect the generative function or cause hormonal imbalances.

Primary infertility

infertile woman

Infertility is a very complex condition that affects thousands of people all over the world. It is a challenge to manage and treat, and it can be devastating for those who are struggling with it. This article discusses the causes of infertility, how to diagnose it, and what treatments are available.

Primary infertility is defined as any cause of infertility that has not been caused by any other underlying medical or non-medical problem such as ovulation disorders, tubal factor infertility, or male factor infertility.

Secondary infertility

infertility and fertility care

The condition of secondary infertility occurs when a couple has been successful in becoming pregnant, but the pregnancy does not continue.

A woman’s reproductive health problems are the most common cause of secondary infertility; however, malefactors such as a low sperm count or poor quality of sperm can also contribute.

The condition affects approximately 10% of all pregnancies and is notoriously difficult to diagnose at the time of birth. It is critical for couples who are experiencing secondary infertility to consult with their doctor and seek help from fertility specialists as soon as possible.

What are risk factors for infertility in all genders?

These factors increase the likelihood of infertility in both men and women:

  • Age is a factor (over age 35 for women or over 40 for men).
  • Diabetes.
  • Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, are common.
  • Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages.
  • Environmental toxins, such as lead and pesticides, are being exposed to.
  • Overdoing it with the exercise.
  • Whether it is radiation therapy or another type of cancer treatment,
  • Diseases that are transmitted through sexual contact (STDs).
  • Smoking.
  • Stress.
  • Substance abuse is a problem.
  • Obesity-related issues (obesity or underweight).

Diagnosis and tests

doctors treat infertility

Depending on your healthcare provider’s instructions, you may be asked to record signs of ovulation such as basal body temperature and cervical mucus production. You could also try an ovulation kit at home.

The following tests can also aid in the diagnosis or exclusion of a female fertility problem:

Examination of the pelvis, which may include the administration of a Pap smear, will be performed by your provider to check for structural problems or signs of disease.

Thyroid hormone levels can be checked using a blood test, which can be performed at any time.

Transvaginal ultrasound: During this procedure, your doctor inserts an ultrasound wand into the vagina in order to check for reproductive system problems.

In this procedure, your provider inserts a thin, lighted tube (hysteroscope) into the vaginal opening in order to inspect the uterus.

An ultrasound transvaginal sonohysterogram (SIS) is performed after your provider fills the uterus with saline (sterilized salt water) and performs a transvaginal sonogram. When the uterus is completely filled, it is easier to see inside the uterus.

X-rays are used to capture an injectable dye as it travels through the fallopian tubes during a hysterosalpingogram (HSG). This test is performed to look for obstructions.

An abdominal laparoscopy is a procedure in which your provider inserts a laparoscope (a thin tube with a camera) through a small abdominal incision. Female pelvic laparoscopy aids in the diagnosis of conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and scar tissue.

These tests can assist in the diagnosis or exclusion of a male fertility problem:

A sperm analysis checks for sperm problems such as low sperm count and poor mobility, among other things. Some men require a needle biopsy to remove sperm from their testicles and test it, which is done in a laboratory. For the vast majority of men, this is the only test that will be required during the course of their infertility treatment.

A blood test can be used to check the levels of testosterone, thyroid hormone, and other hormones in the body. Genetic blood tests look for chromosomal abnormalities, which are found in a person’s DNA.

Sonographic examination of the scrotum is used to detect varicoceles and other testicular abnormalities.

Management and treatment

When should you seek help if you are experiencing infertility?

Females under the age of 35 who have not been able to conceive after one year of trying should consult with a healthcare professional. If you are over the age of 35, you should seek help sooner rather than later (after six months of unsuccessful attempts). The likelihood of a woman becoming pregnant decreases as she gets older. A 30-year-old woman has half the fertility of a woman who is 20 years old.

If you have a risk factor that has an impact on your fertility, you should seek help as soon as possible, regardless of your gender.

What is the treatment for female infertility? Infertility treatments include the following:

  • Fertility medications work by altering hormone levels in order to stimulate ovulation.
  • Surgery: Surgery can be used to open blocked fallopian tubes and remove uterine fibroids and polyps that have grown in the uterus. The surgical treatment of endometriosis increases a woman’s chances of becoming pregnant by twofold.

What is the treatment for male infertility? The following are examples of male infertility treatments:

  • Medications: Medications have the potential to raise testosterone or other hormone levels in the body. There are also medications available to treat erectile dysfunction.
  • Surgery: Some men require surgery in order to clear obstructions in the tubes that store and transport sperm. Varicocele surgery can help to improve the health of sperm and the chances of conceiving a child.

What are the various fertility treatment options available to people of all genders?

  • Some couples require additional assistance in conceiving. If a woman wants to increase her chances of getting pregnant, she can start by taking medications to stimulate ovulation before trying one of the following options:
  • Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a procedure in which a healthcare provider inserts sperm directly into the uterus using a long, thin tube.
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a type of assisted reproductive technology that allows for the creation of eggs in a laboratory (ART). It entails harvesting the eggs at the conclusion of the stimulation and combining the sperm and eggs in a lab dish to create a fertilized egg. The eggs are fertilized by the sperm. One of the fertilized eggs (embryo) is transferred into the uterus by a healthcare provider.
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a procedure that is very similar to in vitro fertilization (IVF). Each harvested egg is directly implanted with one sperm by an embryologist (a highly trained lab technician), and the embryo is transferred into the uterus by a healthcare provider after it has been implanted.
  • Third-party assisted reproductive technology (ART): Couples can use donor eggs, donor sperm, or donor embryos. Some couples require the assistance of a gestational carrier or surrogate. This individual agrees to be the mother and give birth to your child.

How is female infertility treated?

When it comes to fertility, each woman is affected differently by the condition. Numerous factors, including age, genetics, diet, and lifestyle, can contribute to the condition. Female infertility treatment has rendered some women infertile, but they can still have children through adoption or the use of an egg donor.

Women all over the world are affected by female infertility, which is a condition that affects many of them. There are a variety of treatment options available for this condition, depending on the underlying cause of the problem. Hormone therapy and in vitro fertilization are two of the treatments available to patients (IVF).

Infertility is a difficult condition to accept for both men and women, but there are numerous treatment options available for those who are affected by it.

How is male infertility treated?

Male infertility can be treated in different ways. The most common treatment for male infertility is a vasectomy reversal, which involves removing the vas deferens to restore sperm flow. Other treatments include surgical sperm extraction or IVF (in vitro fertilization).

Infertility is usually treated with medication and surgery, but some couples have had success with acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, and herbal remedies.

How can I prevent infertility?

In order to protect their fertility, both men and women can take the following steps, which are especially important during the conception process:

  • Maintain a well-balanced diet and a healthy weight by exercising regularly.
  • Do not smoke, abuse drugs, or consume excessive amounts of alcohol.
  • Get checked for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
  • Keep your exposure to toxins to a minimum.
  • Maintain a healthy physical activity level, but avoid overdoing it.

What is the prognosis for people who have infertility?

After undergoing fertility treatments, approximately 9 out of 10 couples are successful in their attempts to become pregnant. The likelihood of a successful pregnancy varies depending on the cause of infertility, the couple’s age, and other variables. Generally speaking:

There is a 20 percent success rate for each IUI attempt.

According to estimates, one in every two women under the age of 35 conceives through assisted reproductive technology. Women in their early to mid-40s have a lower prevalence rate, with one in every 30 women (3 percent).


When it comes to the word “infertility,” it comes from the Latin root infertilitas, which literally translates as “not fruitful.” Its etymology indicates that a woman was unable to bear children due to illness. The term “infertility” was first used to refer to women who had difficulty getting pregnant and carrying their pregnancies all the way to term.

Despite the fact that infertility is primarily a female issue, it has become an increasingly common problem for men who are unable to conceive a child in recent years.


What usually causes infertility?

You should see a doctor if you and your partner have been trying to conceive for a year.

Women over 35 should see a doctor after six months of trying to see if they get pregnant naturally.

Why is infertility common?

  • The US infertility rate is rising. According to the CDC, 13% of married women under 44 have trouble getting or staying pregnant (CDC). Many factors can contribute to this growing issue: Age is a factor as women’s fertility declines with age. Infertility is also difficult to diagnose because it has multiple causes.
  • Female infertility is caused by issues with ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), which can be caused by hormonal issues, PCOS, or thyroid disease. Obstacles in the uterus and fallopian tubes can also prevent sperm from reaching the egg. Finally, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and extreme underweight or overweight have all been linked to infertility issues in women.
  • Male infertility is often caused by low sperm count or abnormal sperm shape or movement that prevents fertilization.

How can a woman tell if she is infertile?

When a woman is planning to have children, she may want to know about the symptoms of infertility. As there are many symptoms of infertility, this article will discuss some of them.

First off, if a woman is having her menstrual period every month but does not conceive after six months or more, then she may be infertile. There are symptoms of infertility related to how long she has been trying to conceive.

Another symptom, if she is thirty-five years old or older and has not gotten pregnant, then it may be symptoms of infertility.

Can infertility be cured?

There are several treatment options for infertility. One of them is in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment which implants an embryo into the uterus through the cervix. This treatment is currently one of the most effective ways to cure infertility; however, it comes with an extremely high cost and a low amount of success for treatment.

What are the types of infertility?

Infertility in women can be caused by a lack of ovulation or problems with fertilization. Infertility in men can be caused by a lack of sperm, poor sperm motility, or abnormal sperm structure.

Primary infertility occurs when a couple has never conceived successfully together.

Secondary infertility occurs when a previously fertile couple becomes infertile after having children. The causes of secondary infertility include tubal damage from surgery, ectopic pregnancy, and abortion; malefactors such as prior vasectomy or infection within the reproductive tract; and uterine factors such as congenital abnormalities in the uterus.

What are 4 causes for female infertility?

Female infertility has many causes. Infertility in women is usually caused by one of the following:

1. Ovulation issues

  • Menstrual irregularities include missed periods, vaginal bleeding, spotting in the third week of your cycle, and lumpy or sore breasts in the second half of your cycle. Not ovulating regularly makes it difficult to get pregnant. Stress, weight changes, illness like fever, and thyroid disorders can cause this. Dieting can cause temporary infertility if the body feels hungry.
  • Anovulatory cycles cause no symptoms for some women, while irregular menstrual cycles cause symptoms for others (number).

2. Fallopian tube occlusion

  • PID, surgery-induced adhesions, endometriosis, scar tissue from post-partum intrauterine device use, and other factors can cause fallopian tube obstruction.

3. Endometriosis

  • “Excess tissue from the uterus or other pelvic organs grows outside the uterus, building up and breaking down each month. Pregnancy complications include infertility and chronic low-back pain.”
  • (NHS) Endometriosis has no known cure, but many treatments can help manage symptoms. Endometriosis is treated with estrogen-progestogen combinations. Recent research has shown that HRT does not increase the risk of certain cancers in endometriosis patients.

4. Pelvic adhesions

  • Pelvic adhesions are scar tissue that forms after pelvic surgery and can cause infertility if not treated. This condition is common in women who have been sterilized. The article also explains what pelvic adhesions are and how they are treated. Fever, nausea, vomiting, painful urination, pain during sex, and unexplained weight loss are all listed as warning signs that should be reported to a doctor.

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